The fundamentals of ethics I Russ Shafer-Landau.- 2nd ed. p. em. Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index. ISBN (main edition) 1. Julia Driver Ethics the Fundamentals Fundamentals of Philosophy (1) 2. Russ Shafer-Landau Oxford Studies in Metaethics IV. The Fundamentals of Ethics (Russ Shafer-Landau) In the choice of what have seemed to me to be the fundamentals of ethics, it has been necessary to reduce to a minimum the psychological and sociological.
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Free Download The Fundamentals of Ethics Any device Download here: https:// tingrakecoupde.ga?book= In The Fundamentals of Ethics, Third Edition, author Russ Shafer-Landau employs a uniquely engaging writing style to introduce students to. Introduction -- Part I: The good life -- Hedonism: its powerful appeal -- Is happiness all that matters? -- Getting what you want -- Problems for the.
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Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Offering more comprehensive coverage of the good life, normative ethics, and metaethics than any other text of its kind, this book also addresses issues that are often omitted from other texts, such as the doctrine of doing and allowing, the doctrine of double effect, ethical particularism, the desire-satisfaction theory of well- being, and moral error theory.
Shafer-Landau carefully 3. The text is supplemented by an online Instructor's Manual and Computerized Test Bank and a Companion Website with student self-quizzes and additional resources. Ideal for courses in introductory ethics and contemporary moral problems, this book can be used as a stand-alone text or with the author's companion reader, The Ethical Life: We must follow the arguments where they leha. They may indeed lead us ultimately to embrace such positions.
If there were some objective truth in ethics, then we should expect all really smart people to agree on it. They don t. B There are universally correct moral standards only if God eXists. And thats because not mg 11 is ri ht or Wron. D lfthre wire a univerial ethic, then that would make it okay for some people to impose their own views on others. But thats not okay at all.
Therefore there is no universal ethic. E If there were objective moral rules, then it would always be wrong to break them. But every rule admits of exceptions; no moral rule is absolute. That shows that we do make up the moral rules after all.
This is going to sound like cheating, but here goes: every single one of these arguments is problematic. Still, there is a lesson here: until these or other arguments are laid out with care and successfully defended, we are in no position to assume that the skeptics about morality are right. Introduction 5 what is good and right. Doing moral philosophy can help with this. Look at it this way. Lots of people believe that when it comes to art, beauty is in the eye of the beholder—w there are no objective, universal stan— dards of good taste.
And suppose that morality is just like art in this respect. Still, our tastes can be educated and improved. Many people are much wiser than I am about music and painting, for instance. Even if there are no universal standards of good taste, it would be silly of me to pass up a chance to talk with them. Why should I dismiss their opinions and refuse to hear them out?
Maybe I could learn a thing or two. Especially when so much is at stake—the very quality of our life and our relations with oth— ers—it would be terrible to close our minds to new and challenging ideas. Those who have thought so hard about the central questions of existence may well have something to teach us. I encourage you to resist the diagnosis that in ethics, anything goes.
Though it is sometimes hard to know when we have got it right in ethics, it is often very easy to know when we or others have made a mistake. We should keep that in mind before siding too quickly with a skepticism that says that all moral views are as good as every other. Ethical Starting Points One of the puzzles about moral thinking is knowing where to begin. They believe that moral reasoning is simply a way of rationalizing our biases and gut feelings.
This outlook encourages us to be lax in moral argument and, worse, supports an attitude that no moral views are any better than others.
We should accept it only as a last resort. And even if morality is in some way a human invention, there is.
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There are reasonable constraints that can guide us when thinking about how to live. Here are some of them: - Neither the law nor tradition is immune from moral criticism. Neither does tradition.
Actions that are legal, or customary, are sometimes istaken. Having friends is a good thing. Friendships add value to your life. You are better off when there are peop e you care deeply about, and who care deeply about you.
We are not obligated to do the impossible. Morality can deman on y so much of us. Moral standards that are impossrble to meet are illegitimate.
Morality must respect our limitations. Children hear less moral responsibility than adults. The fewer of these abilities you have, the less blameworthy might cause. Any moral theory that treats justice as irrelevant is deeply suspect. It is important that we get what we deserve, and that we are treated fairly.
The default position in ethics is this: do no harm. It is sometimes morally acceptable to harm others, but there must be an excellent reason for doing so. People who are alike in all relevant respects should get similar treatment.
When this fails to happen when racist or sexist policies are enacted, for instance—then some— thing has gone wrong.
How well-off we are is important. Morality sometimes calls on us to set aside our own interests for the sake of others. Agony is bad.
Excruciating physical or emotional pain is bad. It may Introduction 7. That a person can escape punishment is one thing—whether his actions are morally acceptable is another. Free and informed requests prevent rights violations.
There are a number of points to make about these claims.
The Fundamentals of Ethics 3rd Edition by Shafer-Landau
Second, I am not claiming that the items on this list are beyond criti— cism. I am saying only that each one is very plausible. The point, though, is that without such scrutiny, it is perfectly reasonable to begin with the items on this list.
When we say, for instance, that equals ought to be treated equally, we leave all of the interesting questions open. What makes people equals? Can we treat people equally without treating them in precisely the same way? Not only do we have a variety of plausible starting points for our ethi— cal investigations; we also have a number of obviously poor beginnings for moral thinking. A morality that celebrates genocide, torture, treachery, sadism, hostility, and slavery is, depending on how you look at it, either no morality at all or a deeply failed one.
Any morality worth the name will place some importance on justice, fairness, kindness, and reasonableness. Moral Reasoning In addition to these remarks about appropriate and inappropriate start— ing points for ethical thinking, we should also note that some common errors can undermine moral reasoning. These errors serve as further evi— dence that not everything is up for grabs wheh it comes to ethics. An argument is simply any chain of thought in which reasons philosophers call these premises are offered in support of a particular conclusion.
Not all arguments are equally good.
This is as true in ethics as it is sci— ence, mathematics, or politics. We can land at the wrong conclusion by endorsing child abuse, for instance.Every individual is capable of becoming a person inasmuch as he has capacity for virtue—for performing morally right actions—and should be treated at least potentially as a morally responsible agent.
Human limitations are in fact expressed in the following Akan proverb: Man is not a palm-tree that he should be complete or, self sufficient. But this, the maxim invites us to realize, is not so in the cultivation of the friendship and fellowship of human beings; the boundaries of that form of cultivation are limitless.
It is sometimes morally acceptable to harm others, but there must be an excellent reason for doing so.
That which is beautiful is enjoyed for its own sake, not for the sake of anything else. Can we treat people equally without treating them in precisely the same way? Even if there are no universal standards of good taste, it would be silly of me to pass up a chance to talk with them.
Forde, Daryll ed.